Thermal imaging survey

Thermal imaging survey

Thermal imaging surveys are a non-disruptive way of inspecting electrical and mechanical installations under their normal working conditions.


Why undertake a thermal imaging survey?

Thermal imaging is a long established technology that has found many uses particularly with planned or preventative maintenance.

It’s great benefit is that thermal imaging is at its best when the surveyed item is operating under normal conditions which in turn negates the need to have disruptive isolation’s causing inconvenience to the workforce or building user.

When is it best used?

The best use of thermal imaging is to provide an interim non-disruptive inspection of the electrical and mechanical installation.

The Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE) recommend routine inspections to the electrical installation between the formal periodic inspections. Thermal imaging is a great way to satisfy this requirement due to its non-disruptive nature.

What can be surveyed?

All aspects of the electrical installation can be surveyed and Electrical Test Midlands can provide you with expert guidance in making this decision.

Typical items that would be incorporated within a survey would be;

  • Electrical Distribution Boards and Main Panel Boards
  • Cable Runs & Terminations
  • Power Busbars, electrical risers and tap off units
  • Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Panels
  • Motors and Pumps
  • Critical or essential power
  • External power supplies such as generators, Combined heating power (CHP) & UPS

Are there different service levels?

We typically undertake two service levels which offer a full report and analysis or a report by exception which just notifies you of equipment that is operating at higher than expected temperatures.

Which ever report you choose both reports include an inventory of items inspected and the respective measured temperature.

How do the reports get analysed?

All our operatives who undertake thermal imaging are electrically qualified inspection and test engineers, therefore most analysis is undertaken at the time of the survey and either acted on immediately or reported as necessary.

Additional analysis is undertaken by NICEIC accredited Qualifying Supervisors prior to you receiving your report further ensuring that the results obtained are reported accurately to you.

Are there any other benefits from a survey?

Typically when undertaking any inspection safety is quite often the main objective. However, many electrical installations require a higher integrity for the continuity of supply to maintain business critical services.

Though the installations may have undergone a thorough periodic inspection, frequently isolation of the critical parts will not be permitted to be inspected by the client due to the disruption it may cause. A thermal imaging survey of those parts of the installation maybe vital in identifying latent defects which in turn could lead to failure of the electrical supply.

We provide assistance in helping clients understand, where required, plan and manage the processes to undertake, manage and maintain compliance across their business.

ETM are accredited specialists in the following areas, providing cost effective compliance services

Portable Appliance Testing (PAT)  Electrical Installation  Electrical Inspection  Fixed Wire Testing Repairs and Remedial 
 Electrical Compliance  Energy Monitoring  Thermal Imaging  Emergency Lighting Testing  Fire Alarm Testing  Fire Extinguisher  Lightning Protection Legionnaires Testing

ETM Electrical Test Midlands offers a range of testing and certification services to support customers in managing compliance around electrical safety for new and existing installations.
For further information, call 01922 710014 or visit for more advice


Calls for electrical safety legislation to be implemented


An electrical safety campaign group has called on the government to implement planned legislation on checks in private rented housing, following the death of a professor who was electrocuted.

Prof. John Alliston died after touching a live copper pipe as he was gardening in 2017. Although a jury at Gloucestershire Coroner Court deemed the death as accidental, it said the tragedy happened due to a lack of Residual Current Protection. The court also heard that the rented property had not had an electrical safety check.

A heating element which was defective had conducted electricity to pipes connected to the boiler, which had not been earthed.

When will the electric safety legislation be implemented? electrical safety checks - a clipboard

In January of this year, the Government announced that mandatory electrical safety checks would need to be carried out every five years on private rented housing in England. The legislation will be introduced in a two-year phasing period – the start of which has yet to be confirmed.

Phil Buckle, Chief Executive at Electrical Safety First (, commented: “The Government’s decision to commit to introducing mandatory electrical safety checks in the private rented sector – after years of campaigning by Electrical Safety First – was a welcome step in improving the safety of private tenants in England.

“The recent, tragic death of Professor Alliston, who died of electrocution in the garden of his rented property, illustrates the importance of this essential safety requirement.

“Electrical Safety First is extremely concerned that the Government has not yet provided a time-scale to implement these checks, particularly since it announced its intention of doing so last year.

“It is essential that the Government provides clarity in relation to electrical inspections in the private rented sector, both in terms of timeline and how these inspections will be enforced.

“We also want to emphasise the importance of ensuring that the enforcement body is funded sufficiently to undertake its work effectively and the importance of using a competent, qualified and registered electrician to undertake such checks.”

For advise on electrical safety please call Electrical Test Midlands Ltd on 01922 710014 or email

Calls for electrical safety legislation to be implemented


There is a well-known saying dating back to the first half of the 1900’s “BEHIND EVERY GREAT MAN IS A GREAT WOMAN” – Definition – “ALL SUCCESSFUL MEN HAD A WOMAN HELPING THEM TO BECOME SUCCESSFUL”……….

I met my wife and ultimately best friend Nadine (Nade) some 28 years ago in Walsall on a night out where we quite literally bumped into each other.

10 years on, we married and began an adventure to build together what is today known as E.T.M (Electrical Test Midlands Ltd).

After experiencing how ‘other’ companies delivered “Test & Inspection” we were determined to create a company that delivered not only an exceptional service but one that could be trusted to “do the job right”.

In 2004 we made the decision to form a company to do just that and E.T.M. was born. We initially worked out of our spare room in Bloxwich and quickly grew. We took on staff to accommodate client demand and gained trust and loyalty from our team, so much so that my original QS, my personal friend and trusted colleague is still head of our engineers today; similarly our client retention is so good, we have clients who use us today.

Nadine, the determined and driven woman she is, juggled her own full time job whilst supporting my dream, carrying out both Admin and Accounts as I worked hard building the foundations on the tools.
Whilst E.T.M. slowly grew Nadine gave me 2 amazing children and our family was completed.

20 years on and now running an established electrical testing company, operating out of purpose built Offices in Cannock, E.T.M has gained the trust and respect we aimed to achieve in our field as we continue to grow from the dream I originally had years ago and acquiring new contracts through our continual hard work.

I would like to thank both past and present clients and staff for their support and encouragement allowing us to be where we are today.

Lighting Circuits Without A CPC: How To Deal With Them

Lighting Circuits Without A CPC: How To Deal With Them

Lighting Circuits Without A CPC: How To Deal With Them

Elecsa offer their technical support regarding CPC and what to do if a lighting circuit does not have this.

Lighting circuits installed before 1966 did not require a circuit protective conductor (cpc) to be run to and terminated at every point and accessory of a lighting circuit, as is currently required by Regulation 411.3.1.1 of BS 7671.

It should be remembered that the Wiring Regulations are not retrospective, as is clearly mentioned in a note in the introduction to BS 7671 which states: Existing installations that have been installed in accordance with earlier editions of the Regulations may not comply with this edition in every respect. This does not necessarily mean they are unsafe for continued use or require upgrading.

Therefore, there is no legal requirement, and no regulation in BS 7671, requiring an existing lighting circuit to be rewired or upgraded to current standards. However, it is essential that the safety of the installation is not compromised when any alteration and/or addition is carried out.

For example, any new work such as installing an item of Class I equipment which could typically be a metal luminaire (lighting fitting) or a metal switchplate as shown in Fig 1, where there is no cpc available, may present an increased risk of electric shock under fault conditions.

Where an existing lighting circuit without a cpc is to be extended or altered, a number of regulatory requirements should be taken into account

Requirements of BS 7671

1. Regulation 132.16 requires that no alteration or addition shall be made to an existing installation unless it is established that:

• the rating and the condition of any existing equipment, including that of the distributor, is adequate for the altered circumstances, and

• any earthing and bonding arrangements necessary for the safety of the alteration and/or addition are adequate.

2. Where protection against electric shock is provided by automatic disconnection of supply (as is usually the case), the cpc must be run to and terminated at:

• each new point in wiring and each new accessory, except a lampholder having no exposed-conductive-parts and suspended from such a point, and

• any existing point or accessory that is changed from the all-insulated type to a Class I type (Regulation 411.3.1.1 refers).

3. Where a cpc is not an integral part of a cable (such as a twin and earth cable) and is not contained in an enclosure formed by a wiring system (such as trunking), it must have a cross-sectional area not less than: • 2.5 mm2 if protection against mechanical damage is provided, or

• 4 mm2 if protection against mechanical damage is not provided (Regulations 543.1.1 and 543.3.1 refer).

4. Where a cpc consists of a separate green/yellow covered copper conductor, it must still be incorporated in the same wiring system as the live conductors or in their immediate proximity (Regulation 543.6.1 refers). This would require the cpc to be run along the same cable route(s) as the existing cables.

Typically for a domestic setting, the electrical contractor may recommend to the customer that rather than make changes to an existing lighting point or accessory that has no cpc and where one is required, it would be preferable if the complete lighting circuit was rewired using twin and cpc.

Where a new lighting circuit is to be installed, the following considerations should be taken into account.

Ceiling roses

Where ceiling roses are to be fitted as part of the lighting circuit, Regulation 559.5.1.202 requires that only one outgoing flexible cable be connected to each ceiling rose, except where the ceiling rose is specifically designed for more than one such pendant connection (see Fig 2).

a) Single point pendent arrangement

b) multi-point pendent arrangement

With reference to Table 52.3 of BS 7671, the minimum conductor size for a radial final circuit for lighting, protected by an overcurrent protective device with a rated current or current setting (In) of 6 A, is 1.0 mm2 for thermoplastic (PVC) or thermosetting insulated cables having copper conductors.

The flexible cable between the ceiling rose or similar and the lampholder is permitted to have a minimum cross-sectional area of 0.75 mm2 (see Regulations 433.3.1(ii), 524.1 and Table 52.3).

Details on the maximum mass supportable by a flexible cable are provided in Table 4F3A of BS 7671.

Sealing of wiring system penetrations

Section 527 of BS 7671 provides regulatory requirements that should be considered where cables pass through the fabric of a building. This includes where cables pass through a ceiling to a lighting point (Regulation 527.2.1 refers). The hole should be sealed with a fire retardant material which is compatible with the insulation properties of the cable sheath (Regulation 527.2.4 (iii) refers).


For More information on Electrical Safety please call Electrical Test Midlands Ltd on 01922 710014 or email

VAT reverse charge for construction services

Jan Garioch reports on proposals to introduce a reverse charge on construction services from 1 October 2019.

The VAT reverse charge for construction services is to be introduced next year from 1 October 2019. The timing presents a challenge as it comes shortly after businesses will have grappled with MTD and Brexit impacts. The aim of this measure is to tackle missing trader fraud, where VAT charged to a customer is not remitted to HMRC. The reverse charge approach has had some success in tackling this fraud in other sectors where it was rife, for example, mobile phone supplies. HMRC expect to stop fraud worth £100 million per annum by applying a reverse charge to the construction sector, but there is a risk that the fraud will migrate to another sector in the face of this clamp down.

The final version of the draft order and guidance on this reverse charge was published on 7 November 2018. The type of work which will fall within the reverse charge includes construction, alteration, repair, extension and demolition of buildings or structures, including offshore installations. It also applies to works that form part of the land, like roads, runways, railways, sewers and coastal defences. Furthermore, it covers the installation of systems for heating, ventilation, drainage, preparatory services like site clearance and decorating services. Services that fall outside the reverse charge include architect services and the manufacture of building components, materials and plant. However, goods that are not supplied separately and independently of the construction services will also be included in the reverse charge.

Looking at implications throughout the supply chain, subcontractors will still have to be VAT registered if they are over the threshold, and they will have to issue a VAT invoice which indicates that the supplies are subject to reverse charge. However, they will not charge VAT on their subcontract services which represents a loss of cash flow benefit to them. They may also face additional delays creeping into their cash flow. For example, HMRC may question repayment returns before paying out.

The contractors who have to reverse charge should be able to recover the VAT so there is no net effect. However, the onus falls on them to ensure they don’t pay VAT to a subcontractor in circumstances where they should be reverse charging, and staff may require training in advance of 1 October 2019. Since there are complex rules and mixed VAT liabilities involved in the construction sector there have been calls for HMRC to apply a light touch on penalties until businesses become familiar with the new provisions.

At the final stage of the supply chain, the contractor needs to know whether he is dealing with the final customer, because the reverse charge only applies between businesses in the construction supply chain and he must charge VAT to the end consumer. HMRC’s guidance states that it is up to the end user to make the supplier aware that they are an end user and should be charged in the normal way. This should be in written form and retained for future reference. (It is a point to be considered as contracts are drafted for work which will run beyond 1 October 2019). If the end user does not give notice of their end-user status they will still be accountable for accounting for a reverse charge.


By Jan Garioch, CA

16 November 2018


Electrical Compliance? Electrical Safety?

Call Electrical Test Midlands Ltd on 01922 710014 or email on

Lone Working Needs Sensible Risk Assessment

According to online statistics website, Statista, there were 265,000 electricians working in the UK in 2017 and whilst the numbers weren’t so readily available, it would not be unreasonable to presume that many of them carry out what is referred to as “lone working” as a significant part of their daily work. This includes those employed or self-employed.

Since 2015, certain self-employed persons have been exempted from health and safety law.  This is strictly limited to those whose work activities pose no potential risk of harm to others.  Clearly work on electrical systems cannot be described as non-hazardous.

Lone working isn’t against the law, but it is essential that you take sensible precautions if you are going to be working alone.

Lone Working Needs Sensible Risk AssessmentWhen deciding if it is appropriate for employees to work alone, employers need to consider if the working environment presents any significant hazard and if access presents additional risks.

Before carrying out work at someone else’s premises it is important to understand the risks inherent with the work and the location.

If they are commercial premises, there must be a record of any asbestos containing materials on the premises and workers should acquaint themselves with this before starting work.

The Control of Asbestos Regulations also require electricians to have attended formal Lone Working Needs Sensible Risk Assessmentasbestos awareness training.  It is important that when you chose a training provider, that they be able to demonstrate competence.  AT THSP we currently have seven trainers, all approved by UKATA to deliver this training and with a passion for ensuring that operatives are no longer exposed to the life-threatening risks associated with disturbing asbestos.

Whilst an employer may have drawn up a generic risk assessment for the tasks being undertaken, it is essential that the engineer has been trained to spot any additional hazards and knows what steps to take.  Some hazards can be easily addressed and controlled, however others will need to be referred to a line manager or other competent person.  The Risk Assessment Builder developed by THSP is an intuitive and interactive programme allowing employers to produce site specific risk assessments in a fraction of the time it would take from scratch.  Furthermore, due to the extensive data supporting the tool, users can generate over 10 million different outcomes.  These assessments can be accessed online by employees along with an online briefing to demonstrate that they have received this vital information.

Current advice from HSE is that there are some high-risk activities where at least one other person may need to be present. Examples include:

  • working in a confined space;
  • working at or near exposed live electricity conductors; or
  • health and social care work dealing with unpredictable client behaviour and situations.

Risk assessments and the need to make sure they are suitable and sufficient remains a thorny issue for many employers.  Some Lone Working Needs Sensible Risk Assessmentcompanies rely heavily on libraries of generic assessments, drawn together over the years, or downloaded from remote websites or even “borrowed” from other employers.  This can give “the illusion of control” and where they are clearly irrelevant, encourage employees to disregard them.

How much supervision is needed should be determined in your risk assessment, the higher the risk, the greater the level of supervision required. It should not be left to the individual lone worker to decide if they need help.

Your risk assessment should identify the possibility of an emergency arising and set out clear procedures to be followed.  A first aid kit may be necessary as well as formal training.

Lastly you will need to put in place monitoring and communication arrangements.  This could be:

  • Periodic visits by supervisors;
  • Regular contact by phones, radios or email;
  • manually operated or automatic warning devices; and
  • A robust system ensuring lone workers have returned home safely.

Whatever you do, it is important to ensure that not only do lone workers have the skills, experience, knowledge and training to enable them to work safely, but that those managing them understand their responsibilities.

For more information on working safely or electrical compliance please phone Electrical Test Midlands Ltd  on 01922 710014


According to new research by the Consumer Protection Alliance – a group made up of Dispute Resolution Ombudsman, Gas Safe Register, NICEIC and Which? Trusted Traders, with the aim of promoting consumer safety and protection in the UK – over half of Brits (55%) do not unplug electric appliances that are not designed to be left on, whilst some 52% do not know how to test their smoke alarm for functionality. Shockingly, 22% don’t check that the front door is locked before turning in, leaving them open to potential disaster – yet over half of the nation (51%) would check that the curtains are closed at bedtime. A staggering 62% of Brits admit to not checking the hob is turned off before going to bed; risking appliance damage, or worse.

Despite the importance, 44% of Brits admit that they do not carry out annual safety checks on the electrical appliances in the home. Of those, 42% don’t know how to check them, over a third (34%) are not aware of which appliances need checking and almost a quarter (23%) ‘can’t be bothered’ to organise the check.

Aligned to this, 28% would wait until an appliance had completely broken down before being prompted to get it assessed, meaning what could have been a simple check develops into a major issue. More than a quarter (26%) would only organise a safety check-up when they heard about a friend’s misfortune, such as a boiler breaking down or the hob conking out.

Cheryl Cox, Public Affairs Manager at NICEIC and member of the Consumer Protection Alliance, comments: “It’s worrying that the nation is turning their attention away from safety in the home, and that some wouldn’t even consider using the professionals in times of need. Gas and electrical safety is important year-round, but especially during the winter months when an extra strain is placed on our appliances in the home. We tend to forget that our appliances such as the boiler, gas hob and hot water cylinder are used so frequently that they need extra maintenance. Everyone needs to be aware of the dangers and we believe that safety is paramount, and education is key.”

Worryingly, the survey of 2,000 British adults also reveals a lack of knowledge and understanding when it comes to home safety:

  • 64% have ended up paying a professional to fix a botched job that was carried out by a ‘cowboy’ tradesman, which has resulted in spending up to an extra £500 on average
  • 26% were unaware that a boiler requires an annual safety check
  • 17% believe they could carry out a check on gas appliances themselves, with over three in five (63%) taking instructions and guidance from online resources such as Google, YouTube or social media
  • 22% don’t know how, or simply wouldn’t bother, to check if their chosen tradesperson is registered in their profession. (ETM) Electrical Test Midlands is a registered profession.

In response, the Consumer Protection Alliance has launched a national consumer safety campaign warning homeowners and landlords about the dangers lurking in the home. Brits are advised to think safety first with these five top tips to ensuring your home is safe:

  1. Install smoke alarms and carbon monoxide detectors where appConsumer Protection Alliance Check it! Fire Alarmropriate and test them on a regular basis.
  2. Arrange for an annual safety check on the following gas appliances:
    • Boiler
    • Gas fires
    • Gas cooking hob
    • Hot water cylinder
  3. Carry out your own annual visual checks on plugs, sockets, cables, leads and light fittings and seek help from a registered electrician if you find any issues.
  4. Arrange for an inspection and test of electrical installations every five years, regardless of whether the property is owned or rented.
  5. When having a gas or electrical safety check carried out, always hire a registered, professional tradesperson such as those on the Gas Safe Register or those registered with NICEIC.

Each year, 350,000 serious injuries are caused by electrical faults. There are as many as 250,000 illegal gas jobs carried out each year and 40 people die from carbon monoxide poisoning annually.

The Consumer Protection Alliance was founded by Dispute Resolution Ombudsman, Gas Safe Register, NICEIC and Which? Trusted Traders with the aim of promoting consumer safety and protection in the UK.

For more information on electrical safety please phone Electrical Test Midlands 01922 710014, email

Factory employees
are most likely to face a fire


New data from all England and Wales fire and rescue services, the National Fire Survey 2019, has revealed that Greater London had the most fires in factories and warehouses at 180 from April 2015 to October 2018. Proportionally, Tyne and Wear took top place with the highest percentage of fires per business at 0.42%.

The data comes from the National Fire Survey 2019 created by health and safety eLearning provider, DeltaNet International. The survey analysed data from all 46 fire and rescue services in England and Wales.

The statistics were sourced through a series of Freedom of Information (FOI) requests asking how many fires were attended to, from April 2015 to October 2018, in offices, factories, and warehouses.

The top 10 regions for fires in warehouses and factories were: The National Fire Survey 2019 infographic

  • Greater London (180)
  • Dorset & Wiltshire (136)
  • Greater Manchester (127)
  • Tyne and Wear (124)
  • Hampshire (124)
  • Northamptonshire (118)
  • Staffordshire (114)
  • Devon and Somerset (108)
  • West Yorkshire (93)
  • Humberside (83)

Proportionally*, the top 10 most dangerous regions for warehouse and factory fires were: 

  • Tyne and Wear (0.42%)
  • Staffordshire (0.38%)
  • Northamptonshire (0.37%)
  • Bedfordshire (0.32%)
  • Dorset & Wiltshire (0.31%)
  • Cambridgeshire (0.30%)
  • Humberside (0.29%)
  • Durham and Darlington (0.29%)
  • Northumberland (0.27%)
  • Derbyshire (0.26%)

With a number of the fires being caused by electrical issues in workplaces, Angela Murphy of leading safety charity, Electrical Safety First explained the dangers businesses face:

“Whatever your business size or sector – and whether you work in an office or from your own home –  you will use electricity. It is so much a part of our modern world that it is easy to take it for granted. Attention to health and safety is not simply about being socially responsible – it also makes good business sense. Taking the time to establish effective electrical safety procedures can not only ensure that your business meets legal requirements, it can also reduce insurance costs, help with accident prevention and improve the working environment. Electricity is a great servant and a bad master. Make sure you put it in its proper place – as an important element of your health and safety audit.”

Darren Hockley, MD of health and safety eLearning provider, DeltaNet International who undertook the research, said:

“There is the obvious risk to health, and even lives; then there is the disruption to day-to-day business activity. Without an effective business continuity plan in place, a fire will often force organisations out of business. Even if it does survive, what about the damage to their reputation?

This is why it’s crucial for employers to conduct effective fire risk assessments of the workplace, and to educate employees on best practice and fire safety procedure, keeping everyone in the loop to reduce risk as much as possible.”

For more information about the National Fire Survey, including all raw data from all fire services in England and Wales, please visit:

For More information on electrical safety please call ETM Electrical Test Midlands Ltd On 01922 710014, Email

campaign to regulate electricians


Clare Adamson, Convener of Holyrood’s Cross Party Group on Accident Prevention and Safety has become the latest member of the Scottish Parliament to back the campaign to regulate electricians for Electrical Safety and supports SELECT, the electrotechnical trade association, for raising awareness by campaigning for recognition of Electricians as a Profession.

Clare, who is the MSP for Motherwell and Wishaw, has added her name to the Wall of Support, a striking graphic representation of the ever-growing numbers of organisations and individuals backing the campaign.

Clare said:

“I am very aware of the importance of Electrical Safety.  Consumers deserve the assurance that when they engage the services of an electrician that the person is qualified and accredited to complete the work safely and to the highest industry standard. Electrical Test Midland (ETM) is recognized as a professional company. SELECT’s campaign to have the trade of Electrician recognized as a profession has shone a light on this issue and I support the progress being made in regulation of this industry to ensure that my constituents are protected and can have confidence going forward.”

Ms Adamson’s endorsement of the campaign adds to widespread backing across the construction industry for the move which is also backed by the Scottish Joint Industry Board (SJIB) and Unite the Union.

The Wall of Support illustrates vividly the strength of feeling across a huge range of disciplines that being an electrician is a highly-skilled and professional occupation and that those who practise it must be suitably qualified.

Alan Wilson, Acting Managing Director at SELECT, said: Clare Adamson the backer for Electrical Safety

“The Wall shows in a dramatic fashion the strength of feeling that exists within the construction sector about the issue of professional recognition. We would like to thank Clare for backing us in such a public manner. Our aim is that in future no one in Scotland should have to tolerate the anxiety and upset to which she and her family have been exposed.”

Bodies which have contributed a brick in the Wall include: Electrical Safety First, The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS); the Scottish Association of Landlords; the Specialist Engineering Contractors’ Group; the Association of Electrical Safety Managers; Energy Action Scotland; BAM Construction; the Scottish Building Federation; the Federation of Master Builders; and the Energy Saving Trust.

For more information about Electrical Safety please contact Electrical Test Midlands Ltd on 01922 710014,email

PAT Testing Frequency


PAT Testing Frequency

PAT testing is required by employers, landlords and self-employed to ensure safety of portable appliances. The Health & Safety Executive provides no set rule on PAT testing frequency, only that testing should be done regularly to ensure preventative maintenance. The reason that there is no set frequency is because different situations arise that call for different measures. There are a number of factors that affect PAT testing frequency and it is up to each individual to determine when testing should be carried out.

In order to determine how often you should have your appliances tested, you should bear in mind a few different factors:

  1. Equipment that is used more should be tested more frequently. This equipment is likely to suffer less damage than that used regularly.
  2. If people using equipment report any damages as they become noticeable, there is less chance of a major hazard. If equipment regularly receives damage or abuse that is not reported then inspections and testing are required more frequently.
  3. The type of equipment in question is a major factor in determining PAT testing frequency. Hand held appliances are more likely to become damaged than those that are stationary. Class 1 appliances carry the greatest risk of danger and should be tested more often.

Although there are no requirements for PAT testing frequency, there are recommendations:

Offices, Shops and Hotels – Class 1 equipment including stationary and IT equipment should be tested every 48 months. Moveable equipment such as extension leads and portable equipment should be tested every 24 months. Handheld equipment should be tested every 12 months.

Schools – All Class 1 equipment in schools should be PAT tested every 12 months. Class 2 equipment should be tested every 48 months.

Public Use Equipment – Stationary and IT equipment such as computers should be tested every 12 months. Moveable, Portable and Handheld equipment falling into Class 2 should be tested every 12 months. Moveable, Portable and Handheld equipment falling into Class 1 should be tested every 6 months.

Construction – All 110V equipment used on construction sites should be tested every 3 months.

Industrial – All industrial sites, including commercial kitchens should have Portable and Handheld equipment tested every 6 months. Stationary, IT and Moveable equipment should be tested every 12 months.